Sample Downloadable Papers
COMPRESSIBILITY OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurement results to meet stringent fiscal demands. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic fluid properties, and (3) changing equipment conditions. Conservation equations for energy and mass flow provide the theoretical foundation required for flow measurement. The conservation equations are the basis for establishing a theoretical flow rate. In addition to the conservation equations, mathematical correlations are required to achieve acceptable measurement accuracy.
COPING WITH CHANGING FLOW REQUIREMENTS AT EXISTING METER STATIONS
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Deregulation, competition, and increased share earnings. Do these terms sound familiar? Seems as though in today’s market of the Oil and Gas Industry those terms are the basis companies must contend with. Companies must be firm and meet aggressive market strategies, or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and ours is no exception. Our measuring stations that measure our products are our cash register. These stations were designed ten, twenty, thirty even fifty years ago and are now are performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.
EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL CONDITIONS ON ACCURACY OF ORIFICE MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow
In 1971 E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled “Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element)”. Burgin noted that A.G.A. Report No. 3 (of that time) claimed that an orifice meter with flange taps and with a diameter ratio, ß, between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications in the standard, would have a discharge coefficient value within ± 0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgin’s paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications are ignored.
LOW PRESSURE GAS MEASUREMENT USING ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
With the increased use of natural gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and new federal regulations, all buyers and sellers of natural gas are looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce maintenance and the unaccounted for natural gas.